Sunday, 28 May 2017

Terahertz transmission vs reflection imaging and model-based characterization for excised breast carcinomas

Bowman, Tyler, Magda El-Shenawee, and Lucas K. Campbell. "Terahertz transmission vs reflection imaging and model-based characterization for excised breast carcinomas."  Biomedical Optics Express 7, no. 9 (2016): 3756-3783.
This work presents experimental and analytical comparison of terahertz transmission and reflection imaging modes for assessing breast carcinoma in excised paraffin-embedded human breast tissue. Modeling for both transmission and reflection imaging is developed. The refractive index and absorption coefficient of the tissue samples are obtained. The reflection measurements taken at the system’s fixed oblique angle of 30° are shown to be a hybridization of TE and TM modes. The models are validated with transmission spectroscopy at fixed points on fresh bovine muscle and fat tissues. Images based on the calculated absorption coefficient and index of refraction of bovine tissue are successfully compared with the terahertz magnitude and phase measured in the reflection mode. The validated techniques are extended to 20 and 30 μm slices of fixed human lobular carcinoma and infiltrating ductal carcinoma mounted on polystyrene microscope slides in order to investigate the terahertz differentiation of the carcinoma with non-cancerous tissue. Both transmission and reflection imaging show clear differentiation in carcinoma versus healthy tissue. However, when using the reflection mode, in the calculation of the thin tissue properties, the absorption is shown to be sensitive to small phase variations that arise due to deviations in slide and tissue thickness and non-ideal tissue adhesion. On the other hand, the results show that the transmission mode is much less sensitive to these phase variations. The results also demonstrate that reflection imaging provides higher resolution and more clear margins between cancerous and fibroglandular regions, cancerous and fatty regions, and fibroglandular and fatty tissue regions. In addition, more features consistent with high power pathology images are exhibited in the reflection mode images.

... work. 2. Methodology. 2.1 Pulsed terahertz system. The measurements in this work make use of the TPS 3000 pulsed terahertz imaging and spectroscopy system from TeraVIEW, Ltd. The system diagram can be seen in Fig. 1 ...

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